Small-scale sustainable urban agriculture is being promoted as a path to improved household food security around the world, particularly in developing countries. However, the pathways between urban farming and improved food security, especially in low-income households, are complex and can often be mitigated by poor health, unsanitary living conditions, and other factors that unduly effect poor families. This study of low-income farming and non-farming families in the Long Bien Community of Hanoi, Vietnam aims to study the effects of urban farming and health on food security. In a quantitative analysis of farming and non-farming families, no significant difference was found in food security scores between the two groups. In a qualitative analysis of health and food security, a correlation was found between poor health and decreased food security. The results are used to give recommendations for future interventions in the Long Bien Community for improved food security; the VAC program, a sustainable integrated agriculture and aquaculture program, is recommended as the ideal intervention for the community.