Africa’s population is going to be unprecedented heading further into the 21st century. The region is expected to double in size by 2050. Yet, much of the basic infrastructural projects in terms of the energy sector, water access, and transport is not adequate for such a projected increase in demand. As African governments forge ahead with their development trajectory for their local populations, the fundamental sustainability of their infrastructure plans and the circumstances limiting this sustainability is vital to fully grasp. Using a case study of Kenya’s Vision 2030, I identified multiple risk factors which act to limit the long term financial and environmental sustainability of these projects. Government finances are poorly structured. Agricultural value chains remain vulnerable to climate change shocks. There is an increase in geopolitical competition which reduces the environmental considerations in project planning. And, these risks are highly interconnected. This thesis shows how these risks are interrelated and act on social, political, and, environmental spheres of sustainable development.